Saturday, May 23, 2020

The Aid For African Scholars Essay - 1966 Words

The aid literature has long been accused of being Northern/ Euro centric in its focus. This accusation still stands today. There have nonetheless been important contributions to the aid debate from African scholars. There have been some general studies on the responses of aid recipients to northern ODA (Berthelemy 2005Í ¾ Moon et al. 2010). As there are essentially Eurocentric studies in the literature to aid, there is a need to consider the literature on African perspectives. Some reflections on how Africans perceive aid can of course be gleaned from the critical works of scholars such as Rodney (1972) who speaks in favour of Africa and denigrates northern aid which according to him underdevelops the latter. Fanon (1994) claims that empowerment is vital for Africans to be entirely free. More recent Africa scholars include Ake (1996) who argues that African development policies should be done from within and not from without. In the same vein in her dead aid study, Moyo (2009) expla ins why aid is not working in Africa, while putting forward some solutions. These writers see aid as an instrument of power and their views are echoed by Bindjouli (2006, p.11) who highlights the nonsensical nature of Africans who act in favour of aid policy towards Africa as well as the nonsense of the policy itself: ÃŒ African countries are still importing their resources and models ÃŒ . The African Forum and Network on Debt and Development (2007) explains how, according to the Paris Declaration, aidShow MoreRelatedHiv / Aids And Aids1356 Words   |  6 PagesJust about two decades ago, HIV/AIDS pandemic was the only thing that is mentioned in social media (Gus â€Å"Introduction to HIV/AIDS†). Proved to be originally from Sub Saharan Africa (S.S Africa) region, HIV/AIDS has spread throughout not only the S.S. Africa, but it eventually becomes the global disaster in the late 20th century (Gus). HIV/AIDS has gained attention from the media when the death many patients by the new emerging disease is reported in Europe and US (Satpathy 27). However, these casesRead MoreTriple Heritage and Africas Bright Future Essay1736 Words   |  7 Pagesthis present time in history. From the beginning chapters about geography and historical context all the way to the final chapter on the trends and prospects for Africa, there are a few conclusions that students can soundly arrive at. As far back as scholars have researched, a range of different cultures have come into contact with Africa including European and Islamic cultures. A lot of the interaction has been forced upon the continent, and has been accompanied by violence, physical and otherwise.Read MoreAfrican Americans And African American Community852 Words   |  4 PagesAs seen through time, African-Americans have been at a disadvantage when it comes to accessing funds that are available to most people. This however has not stopped them from creating and accessing help that supports and aids their families. Through communal efforts, African-Americans have been able to create mutu al aid for themselves. In these communities, there are many sectors that have been built, but the main reason many are â€Å"making it† or able to afford and do what they are currently doingRead MoreEssay on Impact of Stigma of HIV-AIDS in the South African Workplace1497 Words   |  6 Pagesâ€Å"Impact of Stigma of HIV/AIDS in the South African workplace.† This falls under a discipline of business management in the financial management degree I am currently doing and one of the key areas of focus within business management is workplace challenges. I believe that HIV/AIDS stigmas are challenges regularly faced in the South African work environment. The purpose of this research review is to gain insight and deeper understanding of what workplace stigma towards HIV/AIDS is in the workplace fromRead MoreThe Roots Of The Tree903 Words   |  4 Pagesincreased as time goes along. The advancements of technology, tools, and the increase of scholars studying/searching for fossils is the cause of this. Fossils are the beginning of the puzzle scholars are piecing together about the origin of human beings. Focusing on fossils dating back to more than 2 million years ago like Australopithecus Sediba, Australopithecus, and Homo habilis can begin to paint a picture for scholars about the origin of human beings. According to National Geographic, â€Å"The Homo nalediRead MoreThe Root Causes Of Sudan s Civil Wars : Peace Or Truce By Douglas H. Johnson988 Words   |  4 Pagesillustrates that a distinct issue cannot explain the intense separation of the Sudan. Moreover, he uses economics and religion as demonstrations to prove his position. Truly, this is no longer an argument about religions against each other, but Africans against Africans in one state. What is Johnson’s main argument about the root causes of Sudan’s civil wars? Douglas Johnson explains that the root of religious division amongst the North and South was an issue, as many people believe it is, but he expandsRead More Universal Declaration of Human Rights854 Words   |  3 Pagesincreased emphasis on sexual rights and most governments, activists are fighting for gay rights and protect people who are discriminated for their sexual orientation. In order to protect and prevent discrimination and violence some states have imposed aid conditionality to ensure that the rights of homosexuals are being respected and protected by the states and societies (Warwick, 2013). However, these states and organisations fail to address complexities in the local complex in countries that criminalizeRead MoreInfluenced By Marxism And Imperialism915 Words   |  4 Pagesdependent position in relation to the industrial powers. Dependency scholars basically believe that less-developed countries will be unable to develop because the rich world uses them as the equi valent of colonies. The major contention here is that the developing countries of the Global South are hindered in their developmental efforts by their association (economic) with the industrialized countries of the Global North. Prominent scholars here include: Paul Baran and Paul Sweezy (Monopoly CapitalismRead MoreThe Demystification of the Freedmens Bureau Essay1262 Words   |  6 PagesThe role of the Freedmen Bureau in African-American development during the Reconstruction era has been a polarizing topic since the Bureau’s inception. While most concur that the Bureau was well intended, some scholars, believe that the Freedmen’s Bureau was detrimental to African-American development. One such scholar was W.E.B. Dubois, who in his book The Souls of Black Folk, expressed his discontent with the actions of the Bureau and suggested that the Bureau did more harm than good. Upon furtherRead MoreAfrican Americans : The Black Codes, And The Jim Crow Laws981 Words   |  4 PagesBy the turn of the 20th century, African Americans who were once slave, less than 50 years ago were now full pledge citizens who can vote and exercise their rights as Americans. Reconstructive efforts were issued to aid th e newly emancipated black population, more several in the south. Programs such as the Freedman’s Bureau, provided free blacks and poor white with food, housing, schooling and medical assistance in attempts for a better transition. However, freed blacks were met with challenges with

Monday, May 18, 2020

2000 Ny Obituaries, Top 5 Regrets Of The Dying And 75-Year

2000 NY Obituaries, Top 5 Regrets of the Dying and 75-Year Enduring Study On Happiness Reveal What Makes a Great Life. The owners of the sexiest job of 21st century, data scientists own the words - actionable insights. The best among them do. Jostled in my mind is a thought – an electrifying thought. Can those words, ‘actionable insights’ and ‘the essence of a good, successful life’ appear in the same sentence? If so, where can we find them? Here are my snippets. The Monk Who Sold His Ferrari In 2006, I picked up a book by Robin Sharma – the title sounded interesting. As I was reading through it, one thought made me sit up – â€Å"what if today is your last, how will you live it differently?† I have been noodling on it ever since –that†¦show more content†¦In the obituaries. 2. Give – Obituary Data says so. I love looking for unique trends. For example, a year ago, I relished studying blog titles of Common Joes and Mayas that went viral on LinkedIn and enjoyed synthesizing the essence. I found it riveting that a fellow geek, Lux Narayan, did the same at a TED Talk. Except his analysis centered around 2000 non-paid, editorial obituaries from 2015 to 2016. Lux Narayan used machine learning to mine for the most significant words in the first paragraphs across the 2000 NY imprints. The essence - the second standout word associated with â€Å"not so famous† Joes and Mayas was help. [the first was John, if you are the curious kind] In Lux’s words, â€Å"The exercise was a fascinating testament to the kaleidoscope that is life †¦.. because the most powerful lesson here is, if more people lived their lives trying to be famous in death, the world would be a much better place.† The science of words has that effect on you. It can whittle down to the most significant and illuminate us for life. What about the science of research? 3. Invest in relationships. Science says so A research was started about 75 years ago. It still continues to this day with Harvard college sophomores from the classes of 1939–1944 and inner-city youths who grew up in Boston neighborhoods between 1940 and 1945. A psychiatrist named George Vaillant had the enormous task of cascading the results to

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

A Report By Mother Jones Reporter Shane Bauer Essay

A June 2016 report by Mother Jones reporter Shane Bauer, who worked as a prison guard for four months to research his article, says that one fifth of prison inmates have been physically assaulted by another prisoner or a guard. Between 3% and 9% of male inmates say they have been sexually assaulted behind bars suggesting that up to 180,000 current inmates may have been sexually assaulted of which only 8,800 cases have been officially reported. Women, who form 7% of the total prison population, have higher figures for sexual victimization. Some 22% of all cases of inmate-on-inmate and 33% of staff-on-inmate sexual assaults are on women (Bauer, 2016). Until the early 1970s, the sentencing of crime convicts was based on the principle of rehabilitation of juvenile and adult offenders. Legislatures set maximum authorized sentences for various types of crimes and judges decided on the prison term or probation or fines. Correctional officials and parole boards had the powers to reduce the t ime served for good behavior and release prisoners early. In the 1980s and 1990s, the emphasis shifted to deterrence by imposing mandatory minimum sentences for certain types of crime, heavier sentences for habitual offenders and the â€Å"three-strike† rule for felony convictions. Public opinion supported these changes in the belief that prison terms were just retribution for crimes and incarceration kept criminals off the streets (Mackenzie, 2001). These changes have led to the USShow MoreRelatedStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 Pages Editorial Director: Sally Yagan Director of Editorial Services: Ashley Santora Acquisitions Editor: Brian Mickelson Editorial Project Manager: Sarah Holle Editorial Assistant: Ashlee Bradbury VP Director of Marketing: Patrice Lumumba Jones Senior Marketing Manager: Nikki Ayana Jones Senior Managing Editor: Judy Leale Production Project Manager: B ecca Groves Senior Operations Supervisor: Arnold Vila Operations Specialist: Cathleen Petersen Senior Art Director: Janet Slowik Art Director: Kenny Beck TextRead MoreFundamentals of Hrm263904 Words   |  1056 PagesLevels What are the skill implications of this vast spread of technology? For one, employees’ job skill requirements will increase.15 Workers will need the ability to read and comprehend software and hardware manuals, technical journals, and detailed reports. Another implication is that technology tends to level the competitive playing field.16 It provides organizations, no matter their size or market power, with the ability to innovate, bring products to market rapidly, and respond to customer requests

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay about Symbolism Used in The Scarlet Letter - 1070 Words

In Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter, symbolsim is constantly present in the actual scarlet letter â€Å"A† as it is viewed as a symbol of sin and the gradally changes its meanign, guilt is also a mejore symbol, and Pearl’s role in this novel is symbolic as well. The Scarlet Letter includes many profound and crucial symbols. these devices of symbolism are best portayed in the novel, most noticably through the letter â€Å"A† best exemplifies the changes in the symbolic meaning throughout the novel. In the beginning of The Scarlet Letter, the letter is understood as a label of punishment and sin being publicized. Hester Prynne bears the label of â€Å"A† signifining adulterer upon her chest. Because of this scorching red color label she becomes†¦show more content†¦As the novel progresses the meaning of the symbolism of the letter â€Å"A† starts ti blossom into a new meaning. Toward the climax of the novel Hester Prynneâ€℠¢s appearance is altered to where she is no longer viewed as a sinner. The meaning on the symbol changes from of the devil to a some what vague symbol, as if it has lost its initial connotation. Society now views her a symbol that differs whom she really is, she is viewed as a strong woman through all the torment that is put in a unfortunate situation. At this point Hester has already learned how to dealt with the burden of the scarlet letter. Withstanding the pressures of society boiling down waiting patiently for Hester Prynne to crack, she does not, she grows into a stronger woman. A woman that has gone through hell and back and continues to thrive in her society even under the circumstances she lives in. The scarlet letter â€Å"A† meaning has changed, â€Å" hatred, by a gradual and quiet process, will even be transformed to love, unless the change be impeded by a continually new irritation of the original feeling of hostility† (Hawthorne 147). Slowly Hesterâ€⠄¢s hard feelings toward the letter, and to the situation itself, begins to diminish. However, it isShow MoreRelatedSymbolism In The Scarlet Letter1247 Words   |  5 PagesSymbolism in The Scarlet Letter Symbolism is simply defined as the use of symbols to represent ideas or qualities. Symbolism is a common occurrence in literary works and many books use symbolism to express mystical ideas, emotions, and states of mind. As in most literary works, symbolism also appears in The Scarlet Letter. There is lots of symbolism used in The Scarlet Letter to convey multiple things and to express many ideas. Symbolism can be found everywhere in The Scarlet Letter and many ofRead MoreThe Scarlet Letter, By Nathaniel Hawthorne919 Words   |  4 Pageslife has just one meaning. Symbolism occurs in everyday ordinary life. One of the most recognizable stories that contain symbolism in Nathaniel Hawthorne’s â€Å"The Scarlet Letter†. Symbolism is when an object is used in place of a different object. Nathaniel Hawthorne is one of the most symbolic writers in all of American history. In â€Å"The Scarlet Letter†, the letter â€Å"A† is used to symbolize a variety of d ifferent concepts. The three major symbolistic ideas that the letter â€Å"A† represents in NathanielRead MoreThe Role of Color in The Scarlet Letter Essay973 Words   |  4 PagesThroughout history, colors have been used to symbolize different meanings based on associations with culture, history, politics, and religion. In The Scarlet Letter, the author, Nathaniel Hawthorne uses symbolism through colors such as red, black and white in the form of sunlight, to represent emotions and ideologies of Hester and the people around her. Nathaniel Hawthorne uses the color red significantly throughout The Scarlet Letter to show its importance of symbolism in the emotions of sin and passionRead More Symbols and Symbolism in Nathaniel Hawthornes The Scarlet Letter1178 Words   |  5 PagesSymbolism   in The Scarlet Letter Nathaniel Hawthorne isnt noted for perfecting any famous literary style, for writing multiple best sellers, or even for contributing largely to classic American literature.   His only real claim to fame is The Scarlet Letter: a novel that was originally only meant to be yet another Hawthorne short story.   Because of this, it actually possesses many short story characteristics.   It is simpler and more complete than his other novels. (James 285)   It also hasRead MoreSymbolism In The Scarlet Letter. Symbolism Is The Use Of1085 Words   |  5 PagesSymbolism in The Scarlet Letter Symbolism is the use of an object, character, or event to represent something else. Nathaniel Hawthorne, without a doubt, uses symbolism throughout the course of the novel, The Scarlet Letter. The novel takes place in a Puritan community in present-day Boston. Hester Prynne, Arthur Dimmesdale, Roger Chillingworth, and Pearl are the main characters. They all have major roles and without them, the novel would not be the same. Hester Prynne; married to Roger ChillingworthRead MoreABy Major Characters In The Scarlet Letter1202 Words   |  5 PagesInterpretation of the ‘A’ by Major Characters in The Scarlet Letter People have different cultures and experiences throughout their lives; therefore, they all have different perspectives of the same object. Various authors use different perspectives of people to make objects mean different based on how people approach it. Not only the readers see the object in different ways, but also the characters in the story. The Scarlet Letter uses various symbolism such as ‘A , rosebush, the forest and more whichRead MoreSymbolism Of Nathaniel Hawthorne s The Scarlet Letter 1122 Words   |  5 Pagesdraft Topic: Symbolism of the Scarlet letter â€Å"A† In The Scarlet letter the author Nathaniel Hawthorne illustrates the use of symbolism in the book, especially the scarlet letter â€Å"A.† Symbolism is defined as a figure of speech used for an object, or a word to represent something else in literature. The Scarlet letter â€Å"A† had a change of meaning throughout the novel. In the inception of the book it is known as a symbol of Adultery. As the book continues the scarlet letter is looked at differentlyRead MoreDifferent Interpretations Of The Scarlet Letter1609 Words   |  7 PagesDifferent Interpretations of The Scarlet Letter Symbolism is everywhere around us in our daily lives, even if you don’t notice it right away. Traffic signs, company names, and even colors can all be examples of symbolism. Dr. Stephanie Carrez’ article, Symbol and Interpretation, focuses on and interprets the different types of symbolism in Nathaniel Hawthorne’s novel, The Scarlet Letter. Focusing mainly on the characters Hester and Pearl, Carrez’ article brings symbolism to a new light as she interpretsRead MoreSymbolism, Use Of Color, And Themes Of Nathaniel Hawthorne s The Scarlet Letter1657 Words   |  7 PagesSymbolism, Use of Color, and Themes in The Scarlet Letter The Scarlet Letter is regarded as the first symbolic novel in American Literature for Nathaniel Hawthorne s skillful use of symbolism and allegory. The novel is also said to be the greatest accomplishment of American short story and is viewed as the first American psychological novel, which makes Hawthorne win an incomparable position in American Literature. Hawthorne’s â€Å"unique gift† for using this kind of skills taps into the roots of manRead MoreSymbolism Of Nathaniel Hawthorne s The Scarlet Letter 1159 Words   |  5 PagesSymbolism in the Scarlet Letter The Scarlet Letter written by Nathaniel Hawthorne is known to have a lot of symbolism. Symbolism is a way to convey ideas and give a book a deeper meaning to readers. While there are many symbols in the Scarlet Letter, there are a few that stand out more than others. Pearl, Hester, Dimmesdale, and Chillingworth are all main characters that have symbols. Hawthorne symbols are used to help readers relate to the story. In order to really comprehend the book the reader

The Chrysalids A Science Fiction Novel Free Essays

â€Å"It’s often said that Science Fiction is the literature of change. † (Treitel). When a society is going through a period in which they develop many new technologies, science fiction stories often emerge. We will write a custom essay sample on The Chrysalids: A Science Fiction Novel or any similar topic only for you Order Now The feelings and fears of that society are expressed in science fiction. The Chrysalids, a science fiction novel, incorporates characteristics of its genre by being set in a different world, by relating to current events and by showing how destructive power can be. Setting plays a prominent role in defining a science fiction story. Science fiction texts are often set in the future, in space, on a different world, or in a different universe or dimension. † (â€Å"Definition†). John Wyndham’s novel, The Chrysalids, is set centuries in the future. â€Å"But, Uncle, if we don’t try to be like the Old People and rebuild the things that have been lost, what can we do? † (Wyndham 79). The word science fiction brings to mind futuristic worlds full of whirring machines and shiny metals. This novel takes an alternate approach; it shows a world so devastated by nuclear war that it has actually regressed, and yet it is still a possible future. In addition to being set in the future, this novel shows a changed Earth. â€Å"†¦ An Offense was sometimes quite an impressive occasion†¦ My father†¦ would call us all together, including everyone who worked on the farm. We would all kneel while he proclaimed our repentance and led prayers for forgiveness. The next morning we would all be up before daylight and gather in the yard. As the sun rose we would sing a hymn while my father ceremonially slaughtered the two-headed calf, four-legged chicken, or whatever kind of Offense it happened to be. † (Wyndham 18). The world John Wyndham has created is so different from the current reality, it is almost a separate entity. In the fictional reality, the people are terrified of anything different from what they perceive to be the norm. They kill, burn or cast out anything considered to be a deviation. This setting allows the writer to explore terrifying concepts with distance while still creating parallels with current societies. Setting is a vital part of any science fiction story. Furthermore, science fiction relates to current events. â€Å"Good [science fiction]†¦ can provide us with fascinating thought experiments to while way the hours, or extrapolate future dystopias from the politics of the present; it can generate visions of tomorrow’s world, or of worlds eons hence; it can warn or it can soothe†¦ † (Clute 6). The Chrysalids explores the impact of nuclear weapons. â€Å"The whole seaboard is empty – black and harsh and empty. The land looks like a huge dese rt of charcoal. Where there are cliffs they are sharp-edged, with nothing to soften them. There are no fish in the sea there, no weed either, not even slime, and when a ship has sailed there the barnacles and the fouling on her bottom drop off, and leave her hull clean. You don’t see any birds. Nothing moves at all, except the waves breaking on the black beaches. † (Wyndham 60). This novel was first published in 1955, shortly after World War II and at a time when many people were protesting the use of nuclear bombs. People saw the destruction these weapons were capable of and they were afraid. The Chrysalids is a response to that fear; it shows one possible future. Propaganda is another issue discussed in The Chrysalids. â€Å"Not ashamed! Not ashamed of producing a mockery of your Maker – not ashamed of trying to tempt your own sister into criminal conspiracy! The enemies of God besiege us. They seek to strike at Him through us. Unendingly they work to distort the true image; through our weaker vessels they attempt to defile the race. You have sinned, woman†¦ You have produced a defilement†¦ A baby which, if you were to have your way, would grow up to breed, and, breeding, spread pollution until all around us there would be mutants and abominations. † (Wyndham 72). In 1955, the Cold War was in full swing. Spies and secrets abounded while children were told that the other side is evil and propaganda slowly poisoned their minds. Eventually, they believe the lies. Joseph Strorm truly believes what he is saying; he feels that his sister-in-law should kill her newborn child, rather than let it grow and eventually have children of its own. Science fiction often incorporates concerns of the author and the general public at that time. Additionally, science fiction often involves the misuse of power. â€Å"[Science fiction] suggests the possibility of scientific discovery going too far, taking on a God-like power that leads to disaster. † (Quinn) In The Chrysalids there are two examples of destructive power. Firstly, there is nuclear power. â€Å"This is a dreadful country indeed†¦ There are stretches, miles across, where it looks as if all the ground has been fused into black glass; there is nothing else†¦ It goes on and on†¦ What did they do here? What can they have done to create such a frightful place?†¦ It must be utterly beyond hope, barred to any kind of life for ever and ever†¦ There was the power of gods in the hands of children, we know: but were they mad children, all of them quite mad?†¦ The mountains are cinders and the plains are black glass – still, after centuries! † (Wyndham 179). Power is a dangerous thing, as evidenced by the burned mountains and plains of glass discussed in this novel. Power is a popular topic for science fiction stories because so many people crave it, despite its poor history and bleak future. The Chrysalids looks at the consequences of nuclear warfare and the idea that this kind of power is not meant for human hands. The second type of power explored in The Chrysalids, is the power of conformity. â€Å"According to Ethics, mankind†¦ was in the process of climbing back into grace; we were following a faint and difficult trail which led up to the peaks from which we had fallen†¦ There was only one true trail, and by following it we should, with God’s help and in His own good time, regain all that had been lost†¦ Only the authorities, ecclesiastical and lay, were in a position to judge whether the next step was a rediscovery, and so, safe to take; or whether it deviated from the true re-ascent, and so was sinful. † (Wyndham 40). As a race attempting to rebuild its society, conformity and a deference to authority figures would have been beneficial. However, change is necessary for growth. Having a world full of people like Joseph Strorm, who fear change as a deviation from the true path, will bring about the destruction of that society. In The Chrysalids, authority figures force everyone to conform to their idea of what is right and what is sinful. This kind of power is dangerous and, at the end of book, brings about the death of Joseph Strorm and many like him. Destructive power is a popular theme in science fiction novels. Due to its setting, relation to reality and demonstration of various destructive powers, The Chrysalids is clearly a science fiction novel. Science fiction can be many things; it can be educational, providing lessons and morals that apply to real life scenarios; it can be a warning, showing the readers a possible or a probable fate; or it can simply take the reader on a fantastic journey, flying through space and time. Above all science fiction is about change. â€Å"Life is change, that is how it differs from the rocks, change is its very nature. † (Wyndham 182). The Chrysalids, and science fiction in general, teaches that nothing in life is static. How to cite The Chrysalids: A Science Fiction Novel, Papers

Pro Skills Business Analysis

Question: Your Case Study organizations CEO says they would like to outsource their ICT and asks to you to make it happen; this includes any existing systems as well as new systems. You will use the information gathered in the previous assignments and will need to do your own research on outsourcing. Answer: This particular integration is evident in various center of Accenture at varied destinations of the company. The identification of the resources needs to be identified before inputting them into the ERP system. The scope of expansion is considered on the basis of requirements of the present outsourcing operations. The ERP system not only monitors the daily changes in the in the several departments within the company but it also makes the outsourcing of the ICT simple to operate (Ewerstein and Jansson 2014). Introduction The process of outsourcing, deals with transfer of business services from an external source, this is done in order to improve the existing service and expansion of the business processes. Outsourcing is often done in order to incorporate new innovation, knowledge and reduction in the cost associated with management. The conceptualization of the technology emerging in the newer enterprises is significant in both production and service related organizations. The sourcing is done by an external supplier and it is not carried out internally by the management of the company. The initiation of the ICT process was evident from countries like India, China, Cyrus, Malta and UK. It has been observed that there is a considerable amount of cross bordering in the aforementioned regions. (Sebesta 2013). The implementation of the ICT process has been studied through Accenture PLC, headquartered in Dublin, Ireland. The company is known for consecutive achievement in the outsourcing operations in the 2016 Global outsourcing list published by the International Association of the outsourcing Professionals (IAOP). The list shows the top hundred companies globally for their outsourcing operations ( 2016). The implementation of ICT at Accenture has ensured that the company can optimize the efficiency in e-healthcare services by providing the solutions related to global warming and various types of social issues which are directly affecting the economic prosperity of a nation. It has enabled the company to achieve several objectives related to innovations and ensured several types of cost effective techniques in the business process. The report given by SMARTer 2030, have suggested that smart grids, outsourcing of the ICT devices, network sensors have significantly contributed to these sectors of the company. The ICT technology has shown the potential to reduce the carbon emissions by 20 percent in the e-healthcare services. ( 2016). Objectives of ICT outsourcing The main service of the company is related to provide business, operations and strategies related to operations. The company aims to improve the consulting services by outsourcing of the ICT technology. It is responsible for outsourcing of digital marketing, mobility services and analytics services. The main objective of the outsourcing activity of the company is to reduce the carbon emissions and add to the environmental performance in the various types of services in the related industry (Jack and Igwe 2014). The main advantages of implementing of ICT in Accenture are discussed below as follows: The outsourcing of the ICT processes in the company has assured the company to achieve the reduction in the CO2 emissions by 2030. The technology has the potential to reduce global emission footprint to decrease the global emissions by 1.97%. The impact of the implementation has laid an augmented focus on the eight sectors of the global economy particularly in energy, food, health, logistics, building and learning of newer methodologies for the outsourcing operations. The SMART2030 report has shown a substantial contribution of ICT in the global emissions between ten years of time span in a conference held at Paris. The carbon footprint report based on the usage of resources by electricity, office facilities has been brought down by more than 47 percent. This reduction is equivalent to availing of electricity facilities by more than 350000 consumers of electricity at North America. ( 2016) The cons of implementation of implementation of ICT technology has been discussed below as follows: The implementation process has faced several challenges due to the changing market scenario at global level. Due to this it is becoming a challenge for the companies like Accenture to trace the external suppliers who are related to provide ICT service. The adoption of various types of ICT service and adoption of techniques such as network sensors, smart grids and mobile networks is considered as an expensive measure and the up gradation process can be time taking process. The restrictions in the usage of internet in certain countries have led to the limited usage of ICT. Due to the Government policies in various countries the internet has limited accessibility and this is a major drawback in implementation of the ICT process (Talebian et al. 2014). With the emerging threats from the potential hackers and fire wall breakers the Internet technology is on the verge of being exposed to greater data piracy and theft. In order to ensure continuous flow of data it is essential to have a proper interlinking of the service through internet (Lapo 2015). Offshore Multi sourcing The offshore multi sourcing is often referred to as hub and spoke model. This method of off shoring reduces the power which a single monopoly supplier should have. This will also enhance the company in achieving the best strategy. This particular model will ensure the company in taking a more risk aversive strategy and mitigate the various uncertainties involved in the outsourcing process. This will also give the company an opportunity to manage the resourcing on internal basis. The appropriate time for multi sourcing is dependent on the maturity of a particular organization. This will enable Accenture to get acquainted to the newer processes and also provide an opportunity to renegotiate with contracts at a later date. As the outsourcing of the business process is very large at Accenture this particular model is ideal for such an organization. This is ideal for flexible business needs and suiting according to job needs of the company. The complexity involved in the process calls for superior management of the available talent to oversee relationship with many vendors and efficient execution of the same. Figure 1: Business Network Model for hub and spoke (Source: Liu et al.2012) The main objective of the hub and spoke model is to increase the present operations of the company. The typical development is associated to the core company. This process may be achieved through strategic exploitation of the assets. In order to efficiently implement this model the strategic alliances needs to be integrated with different competencies. The technological combinations need to be properly merged with outsourced destination for the proper achievement of the business opportunities (Lee et al. 2014). Build operate and transfer Model (BOT) Accenture PLC can adopt the outsourcing model as per build operate and transfer model. In this model the private entities of the company can look to hire the outsourcing facility from the third party agencies. The principle behind the model is offshore partner and engaging in outsourcing operations was based on the in-house effort. The build operate and transfer model is based on the above discussed three principles: Build: This particular sector deals with the identification of the client requirements and making an effort to make an establishment in the host country. This particular phase is involved with tracking of the legal issues, permits, providing administrative services, supplies to office. Operational: The operational phase deals the contribution of the offshore suppliers in the outsourcing of the ICT services. This will ensure that the clients will be able to provide an augmented effort in the time for management and contribute more time for the business rather than giving time for solving of the operational issues existing in the organization (Khanzadi et al. 2012). Transfer: The transfer phase gives an option to the outsourcing activities which deals with the acquisition of the entire business after the operations of the organization have been established for a certain period of time. Figure 2: Build Operate Transfer Model (Source: 2016) The model is also ideal in providing advanced customer service at a lower cost, ownership and risk. For the purpose of averting the risk associated with the venture, the company can look forward to invest in the main functional areas of the business (Jadhav and Attar 2014). Process flow model Scope of improvement in ICT outsourcing The scope of has been seen with the integration of the core functional areas with the business enterprise resources planning. The ERP system used at Accenture is SAP solutions. The outsourcing activities related to purchasing operation, sales, distribution and financial factors related with the service are linked online with ERP system. The ERP takes into account the relative changes in the purchasing activities of the organization and the changes in the various processes within the organization are updated real time with the help of ERP system. The most effective development from the integration of the core functional activities of the company for the various types of facilities which are outsourced is directly in line with opportunities for the improvement in the varied solution of the company. The major integration has been seen mainly in the areas related to finance and purchase operation which are related to the purchase of the ICT equipments (Chan 2013). Request for information (RFI) In order to purchase various equipment and hardware for the purpose of development of Internet communications and technology, the subcontractors need to be managed efficiently in the following ways: The standard template for RFI should be used by the associated subcontractors and the consultants need to place their requests and minimize the import to a single problem. It needs to be ensured that the RFIs are delivered according to the time specified in the contract. The consultants working in the team of Accenture should attach their copy of RFI, which clearly states about the specifications, videos or models which can assess the solution of the problems that are arising as a result of conflict in the request for information (Wright et al. 2016). The project wide register is used to keep track of the RFI with the help of an identification number, date of response and date of creation of the entry. The next steps in the process of request for information involves delivery of the receipt to the appropriate team members as specified in the contract and ensure that an entry has been created for record in the project wide register. The response return process of the review should be dependent on the accuracy and appropriateness thereby ensuring the impact of same on financial project budget and project schedule. The updating of the RFI status is a critical step and it should be only performed after consulting with the team and notifying them about the changes that are being made in the request for information. (Higgins et al. 2012). When the requirements are met the register needs to be marked as closed out, in situation where the requirements are not made according to the specifications it needs to be marked as outside concern for the resolution purpose of the historical reporting (DATE 2012). Evaluation of the methodology based on KPI and SLAs Some of the important key performance indicators and service level agreements which are expected from an outsourcing company like Accenture PLC are mentioned below as follows: Key performance indicators The main concern for the outsourcing agency should ensure utmost maintenance of the quality aspect. It has to be ensured that testing cost is lower than the total project cost. The company to carefully assess the difference in the progress involved of the planned activities and the actual outcomes. The regression test should be based on quantitative execution and cases should be updated according to the release project (Flipse et al. 2013). Service level agreements The company needs to make sure that the services related to purchasing and implementation of the ICT technology in outsourcing is within the specified budget. The efficiency of the design should be tested by the designated team Regression test should be performed on the basis of automated libraries The company needs to make sure that the parameter selected for SLAs are accurate (Gorla and Somers 2014). Report to the CEO The improvement process at Accenture should focus on the benefits it can gain by contributing to the society. The company needs to make tie-ups several companies which can provide efficient technological solutions for improving the overall communication process. The several outsourcing operations will lead to sourcing of more manpower at cheaper cost. This can be achieved by operating in countries where the labor cost is significantly low. In order to enhance the updating process of information the company may consider the restructuring of the ERP system and customizing it according to the requirements of the company. The facilitation of outsourcing services in various areas where the economy is low can lead to a significant growth in the economy and improve the gross domestic product of the nation. The advertising process of RFI should be designed in such a manner that it is able to get attention of vendors for the purpose of outsourcing services and limiting of the selection window for best suppliers available for outsourcing services. The question and method of RFI should involve the participation of individuals related to various professions. For example the process of RFI needs to be advertised in a different way to the trainees of the company than to the experienced employees of the organization (Montenegro and Flores 2015). List of the journal of ICT activities Reference No. Date of entry Activity Name Description Planned Action Status 01 18 .06.2016 Outsourcing model Preparation of multisource hub and spoke model and build operate transfer model Selection of multisource hub and spoke model Under process 02 20.06.2016 RFI model of process flow Model showing the placement of orders on the basis of responses by clients Selection of request for information process model Closed 03 22.06.2016 Evaluation of methodology Listing of key performance indicators Selection of suitable KPI Closed 04 23.06.2016 Evaluation of methodology Listing of service level agreements Selection of suitable SLA Open 05 24.06.2016 Criteria for sourcing Selection of vendor Selection based on multiple sourcing Open 06 25.06.2016 Selection of ERP SAP solutions Selection for improving the online integration of the outsourcing activities. Closed Conclusion The extensive analysis of the report shows that the company needs to upgrade itself according to the changing requirements of the market. It should also ensure that the outsourcing process is able to increase the flow of information in a cost-effective way. In order to further improve the viability of ICT the company needs to take into consideration the expansion of this process in various sectors related to service industry. The key points mentioned under request for information clearly states that advertising and identification for selecting supply and capability of individual suppliers engaged in nicety operations. The general register is used to demonstrate the action plan prepared by the company on a specific date. It shows the scheduled for status of the formulated action plans. Reference List (2016). Environmental Strategy - Corporate Citizenship - Accenture. Chan, E., 2013. Australian quantity surveyors utilize ICT and ERP system improving efficiency.Engineering management reviews,2(4), pp.103-114. DATE, S., 2012. Request for Information. Work, 501, p.65076. Flipse, S.M., Van Der Sanden, M.C., Van Der Velden, T., Fortuin, F.T., Omta, S.O. and Osseweijer, P., 2013. Identifying key performance indicators in food technology contract RD. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, 30(1), pp.72-94. Gorla, N. and Somers, T.M., 2014. The impact of IT outsourcing on information systems success. Information Management, 51(3), pp.320-335. Higgins Jr, D., Fryer, S., Stratton, R., Simpson, D. and Reginato, J., 2012. Using the forward thinking index to reduce delays related to request for information process. In Proc., 20th Conf. of the Int. Group for Lean Construction (IGLC 20), Lean Construction Institute, Arlington, VA (pp. 1-10). Jack, I. and Igwe, L.E.B., 2014. Extent of achievement of the objectives of ICT application in the accreditation of university programmes. Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria, 17(1), pp.53-58. Jadhav, V.S. and Attar, A.R.C., 2014. Economical Evaluation of Build-Operate-Transfer Project, A Case Study. Jensen, P.D.. and Petersen, B., 2013. Build-operate-transfer Outsourcing Contracts in ServicesBoon or Bane to Emerging Market Vendor Firms?. Journal of International Management, 19(3), pp.220-231. Khanzadi, M., Nasirzadeh, F. and Alipour, M., 2012. Integrating system dynamics and fuzzy logic modeling to determine concession period in BOT projects. Automation in construction, 22, pp.368-376. Lapo, L.V., 2015. The challenge of benchmarking health systems: is ICT innovation capacity more systemic than organizational dependent?. Israel journal of health policy research, 4(1), p.1. Lee, S.Y., Yoo, K.E. and Park, Y., 2014. A continuous connectivity model for evaluation of hub-and-spoke operations. Transportmetrica A: Transport Science, 10(10), pp.894-916. Liu, S., Kasturiratne, D. and Moizer, J., 2012. A hub-and-spoke model for multi-dimensional integration of green marketing and sustainable supply chain management. Industrial Marketing Management, 41(4), pp.581-588. Montenegro, C.W. and Flores, D.A., 2015, December. An integrated model for ICT Governance and Management applied to the Council for Evaluation, Accreditation and Quality Assurance of Higher Education Institutions in Ecuador (CEAACES). In Computing, Communication and Security (ICCCS), 2015 International Conference on (pp. 1-9). IEEE.

Friday, May 1, 2020

Strategies of Research in the Accounting Setting and Practices

Question: Discuss about the Strategies of Research in the Accounting Setting and Practices. Answer: Introduction Generally, this research paper is divided into four major parts or questions in order to fulfill the aims and objectives of the study. For case, the first part is about research plan for the research that describes and analyzes various concepts and principles and applications of research that could be used in the accounting. Moreover, the second part of the study would address and analyze the key differences among the Quantitative and Qualitative Research Designs and their used. The next part of the study is suggests that how the Explanatory Sequential Mixed Methods are different as compare to Exploratory Sequential Mixed Methods in the research. Finally, this research paper analyzes and evaluates the major factors or forces that may affect the successful implementation of managementaccounting systems in small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Research Plan for the Research The Objective of the Research: Based on the given scenario, it is analyzed that, the main objective/purpose of conducting the research is to find and access the views and opinion of the company staff about the use of new system within the company. Moreover, to provide specific suggestions and recommendation in order to bring improvement within the current new system to overcome future challenges and issues is also the key aim of the research (Punch, 2013). Use of Qualitative Approach: Generally, a qualitative research approach would be used in this research in order to effectively and properly address the research questions and solve the research problems in an effective and proper manner. In addition to this, qualitative research approach would be used because it is most appropriate technique to collect qualitative information about the research topic, research questions and attain the research outcomes. For example, qualitative research will also offer in depth information about the research problem and help in addressing the research questions properly (Ng, Lingard, and Kennedy, 2013). In the same way, by using qualitative research method, information and data can be collected easily that is essential to address the research questions. Qualitative research method is also allows the researcher to collect subjective information and explore new area of research. For case, with the help of qualitative research approach, the researcher c an address and solve the complex research questions that can only be possible with qualitative research. On the other hand, in this study, the researcher would use qualitative research in order to collect detailed information about the opinion and attitude of staff regarding the use of new system (Taylor, Bogdan, and DeVault, 2015). The population Participants: In the study, the staff of the accounting firm and business partners are the population in the study which the employee or staff would be the main participant in this research because they are using new system in the company. Participants would play a lot of significant role in the overall success of the research because they will help in solving the research question and addressing the research problem effectively (Gerrish, and Lacey, 2010). Determination of Sample Size: In this research study, sample size would be determined by considering a number of observations and replicates. Moreover, the researcher would use and determine sample size in this study on the basis of data collection. At the same time, it is also important to know that, in this research study, the researcher would adopt various specific and scientific methods to determine the sample size from the study. For example, the researcher can use own experience and targeting the population of the study to determine the sample size in effective and proper manner (Mertens, 2014). How the sample of participants will be selected from the population: In this study, the researcher would adopt and use various techniques and method of sampling in order to select the sample of participants from the population. For example, simple random sampling, Systematic sampling, stratified sampling, clustered sampling, convenience sampling, Quota sampling etc are the most common and valuable sampling techniques that can be used as per the nature of study in order to select the sample from the population. This sampling method is more valuable in the research that allows the researchers to infer important data and information about a population. As this research is qualitative research, so the research would use simple random sampling method to select the sample (O'Leary, 2013). Data Collection from Participants: In this research study, data would be collected by using qualitative method of data collection. In addition to this, to collect the information from the participants of the study, the researcher would prepare and send a set of open and close ended questionnaire to the participants to gather the data and information about the research study. On the other hand, Surveys, and Interviews are other significant methods of collecting qualitative information from the participants. Hence, the research can conduct interviews and survey to gather the qualitative information to solve the research questions and address the research problem effectively (Mackey, and Gass, 2015). Example of the Questions: The following are the key questions that will be posed to participants: 1. How the new system helped you to increase your work productivity and skills? 2. What are the major benefits and advantages gained by you by using new system in the company? What are the key strategies or methods you would propose in order to bring improvements within the new systems? Steps to analyze the collected Data: The following are the major steps that would be used to analyze the collected data such as: Defining Questions Organizing information Setting of Clear Measurement Priorities Collecting Data (Creswell, 2013). Analyzing qualitative Data Integrate the information Interpreting Results Limitations: This research has not wider scope for the further research because lack of appropriate research methods and techniques. Moreover, the research does not have clear research objectives, questions, and methods that is main limitation of this study. There is also no link among the research questions and research problem that is other limitations of this study (Baskerville, and Wood-Harper, A2016). Quantitative and Qualitative Research Designs The questions used in interviews are constructed differently in quantitative compared to qualitative research designs. For example, in the quantitative research design, interview questions are design to generate numerical data or information that is transferred into tables, charts and statics. But, in the Qualitative research design, interview questions are design to understand the motivation, reasons, and understanding. Moreover, when a research uses quantitative method to create interview questions, he or she use measurable data to formulate facts and uncover patterns in research (Smyth, 2016). But, Qualitative method is used to collect the quality data from the interview. Along with this, it is also important to know that, in the qualitative method, interview questions are develop by using various methods techniques such as: individual interviews, focus groups, participation/observations etc. In contrast, when interview questions are developed as per the quantitative method, the researcher uses different methods including face-to-face interviews, online polls, paper surveys, kiosk surveys, longitudinal studies, telephone interviews, online polls, website interceptors etc. Hence, it can be said that, questions used in interviews are constructed differently in quantitative compared to qualitative research designs (Guercini, 2014). Distinguish Between Explanatory Sequential Mixed Methods and Exploratory Sequential Mixed Methods There are several differences can be found among the Explanatory Sequential and Exploratory Sequential mixed method techniques of research. For example, Explanatory Sequential Mixed Methods is use to analyze and collect the quantitative data with the help of qualitative analysis. But, Exploratory Sequential Mixed Methods mainly is utilized by the researcher to collect the qualitative data (Thomas, Nelson and Silverman, 2011). On the other hand, Explanatory Sequential method firstly focuses on gathering quantitative information then it collects qualitative in order to investigate the quantitative results. In the same way, it generates quantitative results effectively. In contrast, in using of Exploratory Sequential method, the researcher first gather qualitative information and then collect quantitative data. So, it produces quantitative information for the researcher (Vaishnavi, and Kuechler, 2015). In addition to this, it should also be noted down that, each types of research mixed methods design are used in the research to conduct the research. Both are appropriate for the research but use for the different purpose. For example, Explanatory Sequential Mixed Methods is most appropriate when the researcher wants to collect qualitative results to explain and interpreting the finding of a quantitative study. At the same time, Exploratory Sequential mixed method is appropriate when the researcher try to develop and test a new instrument in the research study (Tran, 2016). Computerized Information Processing System It is analyzed that, Simples Solution is a consulting company that helps its client organizations in improving internal communications. Moreover, it is decided by the management of the company that, Simples Solution would adopt computerized information processing system in run the business operations and functions accurately, smoothly and effectively. The new system would provide a lot of benefits to the employees and organizations. For case, the new system would allow the accountants to conduct variousaccounting functions and transactions more innovatively and effectively (Whitbeck, 2011). On the other hand, the functions of the new system would not be limited because it would also help the organizational people to collect significant and meaningful information to make most appropriate decision. In the same way, the new computerized information processing system would improve decision making abilities of the employees in developing client record keeping system. But, there are severa l factors or forces that may contribute or hinder the successful implementation of management accounting systems in small and medium enterprises (SMEs). As an assistant accountant at Simples Solution, I am responsible to make a report on the factors that may affect the success of the new system (Veiga, and Eloff, 2007). It is found that, there would be several types of technological factors that would affect the success of new systems. For example, service quality, system quality and information quality are the major technological factors that may affect the acceptance of new computerized information processing system and increase the performance of the new system within the small and medium company. On the other hand, if the new system would be easy to use, flexible, easy to learning, and responsible, it would improve the organizational productivity, and profitability. In contrast, if the new system would not be flexible and easy, it may affect the success and growth of the company. At the same time, it is analyzed that, computer self-efficacy and user experience are the people oriented factors that may affect the success of new system in the company (Duggan, Johnson, and Grawemeyer, 2012). Apart from this, there may be various organizational factors that would have a direct impact on the successfully implementation of new system. For case, top management support, and end-user training are considered two major factors that could affect the implementation process. It is because the successfully implantations of new system would require proper and specific support from the top management to attain the key objectives. If there would be no support from the higher management of the company, the new system could not be successfully implemented at the company. On the other hand, after the support from top management, a small and medium company would have to provide and conduct the training programs on the new system so that the employees can effectively understand the benefits and advantages of using new systems (Jansen, and Grance, 2011). The cost and time are others factors that may also affect the success of new system. For instance, when the company implements the new system at the workplace, it would require recruiting special and technical staff to effectively execute the new system. So, in recruiting of new staff, the company has to pay them for their services that may increase the costs of the company and affect the profitability of the company. Moreover, Availability of Resources can also create a lot of challenges and affect the success of new systems. For case, if there would be lack of available resources, the company could not successfully execute the new system at the workplace. (Bidgoli, 2006). In addition to this, involvement of the stakeholders, proper training, leadership and management support, available resources, financial support from company, and support from the community etc are the fundamental forces that may affect the successfully implementation of new technology or system at the workplace. For example, all the stakeholders such as: customers, employees, management, investors, community should participate in the new system and provide their suggestion to make it more successful. If there would be no proper support, the company could not be able to implement a new system effectively at the company. It may also affect the results and outcomes in the future. On the other hand, it is also important for a company to provide sufficient resources to their staff, technical teams, and employee so that they could effectively and properly adopt new system at the workplace. In contrast, if a company does not provide required resources, the staff would not be able to adopt new system at the workplace. Hence, there should be proper and sufficient resources in order to execute the new system successfully (Veiga, and Eloff, 2007). Apart from this, it should also be noted down that, in order to make new system more successful, a company should also provide financial assistance to their staff so that can utilize available resource to attain the objectives of new systems. At the same time, it is also important to the company to promote the needs and wants for the new system at the workplace to make technology more successful. In addition to this, it is also found that, for the use and execution of new computerized information processing system, a company would also need to develop innovative, dynamic and specific strategies in order to fulfill the aims and objectives associated with the new technology and systems. Moreover, the employees motivational level should be increased to successfully use the new system at the workplace. Furthermore, a company should also analyze both internal as well as external business environment before implementing any new system. It is because without analyzing the external and inter nal factors, the company could not be success in executing new system in the company. Hence, it can be said that, all these factors would affect the success of new computerized information processing system (Guercini, 2014). Conclusion Overall, it can be concluded that, the concepts, principles, applications of the research plays significant role in the accounting setting and such concepts could improve the accounting and financial performance of the companies. Moreover, it can be said that, both Between Explanatory Sequential Mixed Methods and Exploratory Sequential Mixed Methods are not similar. Quantitative and Qualitative Research Designs are major different methods used in research to attain the research objectives and various differences could be found among these two. Finally, it can be concluded that, organizational, technical and people oriented factors affect the success of new system in a company. References Baskerville, R. L., and Wood-Harper, A. T. (2016). A critical perspective on action research as a method for information systems research. USA: Springer International Publishing. Creswell, J. W. (2013). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. 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